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  • :: TUTORMATE ::
    Chemistry objque

    Original URL path: http://tutormate.in/demo/tutormate/catloge_left.html (2016-05-01)
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    elements Period 7 is an incomplete period with 26 elements It includes the Actinide series radioactive elements Elements of the second period show similarities with elements of the third period diagonally with the next group eg Li Mg Be Al B Si Such elements are called bridge elements Elements across a period show the same number of electron shells While moving from left to right across a period the number of valence electrons increases by one GROUPS Group number signifies the number of valence electrons of an element Elements of group 1 IA are highly reactive metals called alkali metals Elements of group 2 IIA are reactive metals called alkaline earth metals Elements of group 17 VIIA are highly reactive non metals called halogens Elements of group 18 0 grp are elements with a stable electronic configuration i e a complete valence shell called Noble gases Elements of groups 3 to 12 are all heavy metals and are called Transition elements Elements belonging to the Lanthanide and Actinide series are included under Inner Transition elements Elements of groups 13 to 16 are called Post Transition elements and include weak metals metalloids and non metals On moving down a group the number of valence electrons remains the same Hence the chemical properties remain similar On moving down a group the number of electron shells increases by one PERIODIC PROPERTIES The properties which appear at regular intervals in the periodic table are called periodic properties and the phenomenon is known as periodicity in properties of elements Atomic radius Atomic radius is the distance between the centre of the nucleus and the outermost shell of the atom Factors which affect atomic radius size Number of electron shells if the number of shells increases atomic size increases Nuclear charge if the nuclear charge increases

    Original URL path: http://tutormate.in/demo/tutormate/periodic_table.html (2016-05-01)
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  • :: TUTORMATE ::
    Physics objque

    Original URL path: http://tutormate.in/demo/tutormate/catloge_left6.html (2016-05-01)
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    different kinds of Class I Levers MA 1 and VR 1 In this case the weight lifted is equal to the effort applied e g seesaw with children sitting at the two ends beam balance iii When the effort arm is shorter than the load arm MA MA 1 and VR 1 These levers are used as speed multipliers or speed gainer Here the load is moved through a large distance when the effort is made e g scissors with long cutting blade Class II LEVERS In this class of levers the load L is in between the effort and the fulcrum Class II lever will always act as a force multiplier a lesser effort is required to overcome a large load SOME EXAMPLES OF CLASS II LEVER nut cracker bottle opener wheel barrow paper cutter mango cutter a door raising the weight of the human body on toes etc MA and VR of CLASS II LEVER Since the effort ar is always longer than the load arm in class II lever MA and VR are always greater than 1 MA 1 and VR 1 CLASS III LEVER In this class of levers the fulcrum F and Load L are of the two ends and Effort E is somewhere in between F and L the effort arm is always smaller than the load arm Thus class of lever will always act as sped multiplier SOME EXAMPLES OF CLASS III LEVERS sugar tongs foot treadle knife fishery rod raising a load kept on a palm MA and VR of CLASS III LEVER the MA and VR of class III levers are always less than 1 MA 1 VR 1 EXAMPLES OF LEVERS AS FOUND IN THE HUMANBODY In the human body we can find the examples of all three classes of levers Class I lever in the action of nodding of the head Class II lever in raising the weight of the body on toes Class III lever in raising a load by the forearm INCLINED PLANE A plane surface that is kept inclined at an angle with a horizontal plane is called an inclined plane An inclined plane is used to load heavy goods onto a track It takes less effort to roll drums over on inclined plane onto a track than to lift each drum directly and put it inside An inclined plane acts as a force multiplier Definition An inclined plane is a sloping surface that behave like a simple machine whose mechanical advantage is always greater than 1 MA and VR OF AN INCLINED PLANE AC is an inclined plane of length L it makes an angle a with the horizontal The vertical height of the plane is h R is the normal reaction of the plane on the load If the inclined plane is frictionless then the minimum effort E needed to pull the load along is Lsin a MA sin MA VR Efficiency η 1 In actual practice due to friction between the body and the plane effort needed is more MA is always less than l h Efficiency is thus less than 1 For a given height h longer the length l of the inclined plane smaller will be the angle Q therefore the MA will be greater and effort required will be less GEARS A gear is device which helps to transfer rotator motion from one point to another A gear is a wheel with teeth around its rim A gear system has two gear wheels engaged with each other through one tooth either externally or internally Each wheel is mounted on an axle which rotates The gear wheel closer to the source of power is called the driver or driving gear While the gear wheel which receives motion from the power source is called the driven gear Each tooth of the driving gear acts as a small class I lever Each tooth of the driving gear pushes the tooth of the driven gear one after the other to rotate the driven gear usually the two gear wheel have different diameters and different number of teeth MA and VR OF A PAIR OF GEARS The mechanical advantage of a pair of gears is also called the gear ratio G R Let rA and rB respectively be the radii of the driving and driven gear Let NA and NB be the number of teeth in the driving and driven gear Let nA and nB be the number of rotation per second of the driving and driven gear MA Velocity ratio Thus the number of teeth NA NB radii rA rB and speed of rotation nA nB of the two wheels are related as GEAR RATIO The ratio of number of teeth in the driving wheel to the number of teeth in the driven wheel is called the gear ratio G R Uses Depending on the gear ratio the gear system can be used for i gain in speed ii gain in torque or iii to change the direction of rotation Using gear system to obtain gain in Torque To obtain gain in torque the number of teeth is in the driving gear is less than the number of teeth in the driven gear i e the smaller wheel drives the bigger wheel i e gear ratio is less than 1 Gear Ratio 1 MA 1 The longer teeth wheel i e the driven gear will make less than one rotation for each rotation of the driving wheel EXAMPLES While ascending a hill the driver changes the gear to obtain gain in torque because more torque or force is required to go up the hill Using the gear system to obtain gain in speed To increase the speed the number of teeth in the driving gear is greater than number of teeth in the driven gear The gear ratio is more than one i e bigger wheel drives the smaller wheel G R 1 M A 1 The smaller driven gear will make more than

    Original URL path: http://tutormate.in/demo/tutormate/physics_table.html (2016-05-01)
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  • :: TUTORMATE ::
    Biology objque

    Original URL path: http://tutormate.in/demo/tutormate/catloge_left2.html (2016-05-01)
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    around the 2 sets of chromosomes The centrosome appears near each nucleus This is the end of the nuclear division and cytoplasmic division begins called cytokinesis CYTOKINESIS The cytoplasm between the 2 nucleuses constricts The cell organelles divide and separate into parts The constriction narrows to meet in the centre to completely separate the two cells Two daughter cells with equal number of chromosomes same as in parent cells are formed The above described division takes place in all tissue cells of all the organs of the human and animal body skin muscles bones etc MITOSIS IN PLANTS In plants the nuclear division occurs the same way as in animal except that there is no centrosome present so no movement of centrioles is seen in Prophase Cytokinesis in plants occurs by formation of cytoplasmic plate in between the 2 nuclei which is completed to form the common cell wall between the two daughters nuclei The cell membrane appears around the cytoplasm lining the cell wall All meristematic tissue found at the tips of stem tips of roots buds and cambium show mitotic division DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEIOSIS AND MITOSIS The phases of Meiosis are shown here in the diagram for the purpose of comparing the same with Meiosis Meiosis is different from mitosis in producing daughter cells that are different from the parent cell diploid cell The nucleus divides twice producing four daughter cells in Meiosis The other phases of the first nuclear division are the same as in Mitosis except the Anaphase I The homologous chromosomes move apart towards two poles as a tetrad without the centromere splitting in Meiosis Another difference seen during Anaphase of meiosis is the formation of chiasmata singular chiasma Before the homologous chromosomes separate a part of their chromatid cross over with a part of its partner such that the intersection portion detaches from its original chromatid and attaches to the other chromatid There is no crossing over occurring in Mitosis This brings up another difference in Anaphase of meiosis that is the genetic material in the 2 daughter nuclei is not the same as in the parent cell unlike the mitosis Meiosis has 2 nuclear divisions The first one is with the long Anaphase followed by Telophase It is also called reduction division as the daughter cells have half the number haploid of chromosomes as compared to the parent cell After Telophase I the two daughter cells immediately enter into Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II and Telophase II which is exactly the same as mitosis The direction of the second nuclear division is perpendicular to the first one GAMETE FORMATION Cytokinesis occurs the same way but in both the directions horizontal and vertical forming four small daughter cells with haploid chromosomes These cells undergo specialization to form the gametes ovum or sperm in animals or pollen or ovum in plants Meiosis occurs only in spermatozoa of tsetse and follicular cells of ovary TEACHERS NOTES There are several terms used here from your previous

    Original URL path: http://tutormate.in/demo/tutormate/biology_table.html (2016-05-01)
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  • :: TUTORMATE ::
    English 1 objque

    Original URL path: http://tutormate.in/demo/tutormate/catloge_left4.html (2016-05-01)
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    degree Hari is taller than any other boy in the class comparative degree No other boy in the class is as tall as Hari positive degree Hari is one of the tallest boys in the class superlative degree Hari is taller than most other boys in the class comparative degree Very few boys in the class are as tall as Hari positive degree PLEASE NOTE We generally do not use

    Original URL path: http://tutormate.in/demo/tutormate/english_table.html (2016-05-01)
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